Cannabis Sativa

In-depth article covering everything about the plant

Cannabis sativa is an flowering plant indigenous to Eastern Asia, but today there is widespread cultivation around the world. We will go over a birds eye overview of this amazing plant

Cannabis sativa originated in Central Asia, perhaps the Himalayan foothills. There are lines of evidence that support this theory, including the biological diversity of that area and the biochemical data. The historical data shows no trace of cannabis present in the Western Hemisphere before the 16th century.

Cannabis Physiology and Pharmacology

Cannabis sativa are either male or Female but there flowers are unisex. Male plants are usually taller and less robust than female plants. Female plants are most prized because they produce flowers or buds that are the center point for the marijuana and hemp industries. The Females’ are rich in cannabinoid content. Cannabis plants can change sexes when female plants experience conditions of environmental stress the femal plant can turn to a male this is called herming. Both sexes produce seeds but “Feminized” seeds are created from artificially “hermaphroditic” females that lack the male gene.

Cannabis Sativa contains more than 500 compounds, among them at least 113 cannabinoids. The main psychoactive cannabinoid is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the driving factor behind it’s popularity. The minor cannabinoids are produced in only trace amounts, Besides THC, cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabigerol (CBG) are also produced in high amounts in strains bred for these cannabinoids. Both are not psychoactive but CBD and CBG have been shown to produce a variety of different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, or isolates THC does not contain cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), or other cannabinoids, this is one reason why its effects differ from those of natural Cannabis concentrates.

Chemical Make up

Beside the 113 cannabinoids, Cannabis chemical make-up includes about 120 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma. These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes. some of those terpenes are Myrcene, Linalool, Limonene, Trans-β-ocimene, α-Terpinolene. Trans-caryophyllene, α-Humulene, and Caryophyllene

Different Types of Cannabis

Farming and breeding has produced variation within the species , there are four main types and they all have their own active compounds that are similar but vary in percentage amounts

Sativa

Cannabis sativa is a species of cannabis plant that has higher amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), although it does contain cannabidiol (CBD) as well and some stain. It is used for medicinal, recreational, and industrial (hemp) purposes. C. sativa plants are taller than other cannabis plants and can reach up to 20 feet in height. The effects of sativa are well known for its cerebral high

Indica

The C. indica plant is short and bushy in appearance and takes less time to reach maturity, These also have high amounts of THC but may tend to also have higher amounts of CBD. Indica is well known for its sedative effects which some prefer for night time use. Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD:THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa.

Ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis is a short and stalky plant, especially when compared to its Sativa and Indica counterparts. It typically sits between 1 and 2.5 feet tall at harvest, with a rugged and shaggy growth pattern that produces wide leaflets that express themselves in a light green hue. The buds from the ruderalis plant tend to be small but still relatively chunky and are supported by sturdy, thick stems.

The plant is low in THC like the indica plant but does not contain adequate levels of CBD when it comes to medicinal effects. It is often in conjunction with the C. sativa or C. indica types of cannabis to create hybrid versions as it doesn’t have a high potency unless mixed with other strains.

Hybrid

A hybrid version of cannabis occurs when two or more of the types of cannabis plants are crossed. They are generally equated to being the offspring of cannabis parents from two different categories. Many times breeders will cross Indica and Sativa strains for different effects and aromatic flavors.

Different methods of Creating hash around the world

Creating hash is simple it is just the removal of the resin from the cannabis plant. These are the trichomes and where the cannabinoids are in the highest concentration in the plant. All methods of creating hash have one thing in common they are a solventless extracted concentrate

One of the earliest ways used to create hashish was done by simply rubbing the cannabis plant between your hands, The resin will stick to your hands and then you collect it by scrapping it off. This was and still is famous in India and Nepal they call this Charas. A lot of Charas was produced by women and children of a village because it was not as strenuous as another task. But for the last 200 years, this has been quite illegal, and people are still to this day getting imprisoned for the production and sale of Charas.

Dry shifting hash requires a fine screen, so it is a little less primitive but still amazingly simple. To make dry sifted hash you take the dried cannabis flower and agitated by hand or rudimentary machines breaking off the trichomes. These trichomes fall off onto a screen that has small holes only allowing the trichomes to go through in a powder form. This powder is called keif it is then pressed by hand or mechanical press to flat bricks. The heat generated from the pressure melt the resin enough to make it stick together and

Bubble Hash uses water and ice to freeze the cannabis which makes the trichomes break off and fall through submersed screens.

Dry ice hash is made by sticking dry ice into dry hemp freezing and then agitating it to get trichomes to fall through a micron screen, this way can be done in a dry environment since dry ice just evaporates.
Other methods that use solvents some people call hash oil but these are not true to the history of hash really being a solventless extract which makes it desirable because lower end extraction facilities can have trace solvents in their products

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